Study 1: Acute Admissions

The aim of this study was to identify the proportion of adverse drug reactions experienced among children acutely admitted to Alder Hey Hospital. This year long study is now complete with the analysis having been carried out and publication pending. During the study the ADRIC team were present on wards consulting patients and their families as part of the identification process of possible adverse drug reactions. The analysis has been carried out and the pilot study results have been published in Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics Click here to go to the publication), the full study paper has been accepted by PLoS ONE and will be published shortly. The ADRIC 1 research team comprised of  Dr Ruairi Gallagher, Clinical Research Fellow; Kim Bird, Research Nurse; Jenny Bellis, Research Pharmacist.    


Study 2: In-Patient

The year long investigation of adverse drug reactions that occur amongst in-patients commenced in October 2009 and is now complete. The analysis has been carried out and publications of the study are now pending. The ADRIC 2 research team comprised of Dr Signe Thiesen, Clinical Research Fellow; Helena Mannix, Research Nurse; Jenny Bellis and Louise Bracken, Research Pharmacists.

Study 3: Systematic Review

The aim of this phase of the programme was to conduct a systematic review of studies that investigate adverse drug reactions occurring in individuals aged 0-16 years.  Systematic reviews aim to combine the results of similar studies addressing a particular research question.  Looked at individually, each study may offer little insight into either effectiveness or adverse effects and the hope is that, combining the results from a number of trials might give a clearer picture.  The review combined evidence from the studies which have investigated adverse drug reactions in children and describe methods used for identifying these ADRs.  Dr Rebecca Smyth has carried out the systematic review, assisted by Liz Gargon and the systematic review paper is published in PLoS ONE (Click here to go to the publication).

Study 4:  ADRIC-QUAL

The study explored the  experiences families' and clinicians' experiences of paediatric adverse drug reactions. This study has been completed and involved interviewing consenting families ( parents or children themselves if they are aged 7 to 17) about their stay in hospital, their health problems and the medicine they had been taking. Also clinicians were interviewed to give their perspective on experiences of adverse drug reactions. All the interviews take place under the strictest confidential setting and the privacy of the interviewee is maintained throughout the study. These findings will be used to improve communication between families and health professionals by establishing parental views of the most effective methods of reporting adverse drug reactions in children. The ADRIC-QUAL team consisted of Prof Bridget Young, Lead Investigator; Dr Janine Arnott, Research Associate. The findings of parents' ADR experiences have been published in PLoS ONE (Click here to go to the publication) and the results of parents participation in the yellow card scheme has been published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (Click here to go to the publication). Further publications of additional study findings are pending.

Study 5 - Developing Tools

This study uses the findings from the first four studies to produce tools that will help to both identify and communicate ADRs. The Liverpool Causality Assessment Tool (LCAT) was developed and the paper was published in PLoS ONE (Click here to go to the publication). Child and parent information leaflets are currently being developed. The LCAT e-learning package is under development.